- BIOGRAPHY: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brothers_Grimm
- BIOGRAPHY (Britannica; subscription): https://www.britannica.com/biography/Brothers-Grimm
- OVERVIEW WITH RESOURCES (University of Pittsburgh): http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm.html
- FIVE INTERESTING FACTS (Biography.com): https://www.biography.com/news/brothers-grimm-facts
- OVERVIEW: https://daily.jstor.org/the-fairytale-language-of-the-brothers-grimm/
- PSYCHOLOGY OF FAIRY TALES: https://newrepublic.com/article/126582/irresistible-psychology-fairy-tales
- IMPORTANCE (National Endowment for the Humanities): https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2015/marchapril/feature/how-the-grimm-brothers-saved-the-fairy-tale
- 1785 Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm is born on January 4th in Hanau as son of the solicitor and town clerk Phillip Wilhelm Grimm and his wife Dorothea, née Zimmer.
- 1786 Wilhelm Carl Grimm is born on February 24th in Hanau.
- 1787 Carl Friedrich Grimm (later merchant and language teacher) is born on April 24th in Hanau.
- 1788 Ferdinand Phillip Grimm (later bookseller and writer) is born on December 18th in Hanau.
- 1789 Outbreak of the French Revolution with the Attack on the Bastille on July 14th.
- 1790 Ludwig Emil Grimm (later painter and etcher) is born on March 14th.
- 1791 The father becomes a magistrate in Steinau, the family Grimm moves from Hanau to the courthouse in Steinau.
- 1793 Sister Charlotte Amalie (called “Lotte”) is born on March10th in Steinau.
- 1796 On January 10th their father dies of pneumonia at the age of 44.The family must leave the courthouse in Steinau.
- 1798 From October on Jacob and Wilhelm attend the boarding school “Lyceum Fridericianum” in Kassel in the care of their mother’s sister Henriette Philippine Zimmer. Their grandfather dies on November 22nd in Hanau.
- 1801 Conceding of the left shore of the Rhine to France after the Peace of Lunéville.
- 1802 Jacob finishes high school and enrols in law school at the Hessian State University in Marburg on April 30th. His most important teacher will be the 24-year-old lawyer Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the future founder of Historical Law School in Germany.
- 1803 Hesse becomes an electorate according to the state resolution of February 23rd in Regensburg. Wilhelm also attends law school in Marburg. School time starts for the brothers Ferdinand and Ludwig Emil in Kassel.
- 1804 Acquaintance with the writer Clemens Brentano
- 1805 Jacob travels from Marburg to Paris as an assistant with his teacher Savigny at the end of January. The mother and siblings move from Steinau to Kassel and live in a flat owned by the merchant Wille at Marktgasse
- 1806 Jacob becomes a secretary at the Hessian war council in Kassel without having graduated from university. Wilhelm graduates from law school. Dismantling of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation on August 6th and defeat of Prussia in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14th. Occupation of Kassel by French troops. Beginning of the Old German Studies and the research into tales and fairy tales.
- 1807 Jacob retires from office- Establishment of the “Kingdom of Westphalia” under Jerôme Bonaparte, Napoleon’s brother, with Kassel as its capital on August 18th. Acquaintance with the writer Achim von Arnim in Kassel; with him and his co-editor Clemens Brentano the Brothers Grimm work on the second and third volume of the collection “The Boy’s Magic Horn”. Beginning of the collection of tales and fairy tales and first publications of the Brothers Grimm.
- 1808 Their mother dies in Kassel at the age of 52 on May 20th. On July 5th Jerôme appoints Jacob librarian. Wilhelm is repeatedly ill and is unemployed until 1814
- 1814 Jacob becomes state auditor under Jerôme. Wilhelm goes for a cure in Halle and visits Achim von Arnim in Berlin and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Weimar. Ludwig Emil attends the Academy of Arts in Munich.
- 1811 Jacob saves the state library during a fire in the Castle of Kassel. The first independent books of the Brothers Grimm are published.
- 1812 Beginning of the campaign against Russia by Napoleon on June 24th and blaze in Moscow on September 14th. Jacob travels to Göttingen in July. The editions of the “Song of Hildebrand” and the “Wessobrunn Prayer” as well as the first volume of the “Children’s and Household Tales” appear as the first joint publications of the Brothers Grimm.
- 1813 After the Battle of Nations near Leipzig from October 16th – 19th elector Wilhelm I returns to Kassel at the end of November, the electorate Hesse is restored. Jacob is appointed legation secretary and travels to France on December 30th (until July 14th 1814), where he arrives in Paris with the headquarter of the allies and visits the libraries in Metz and Strasbourg on his way back. The first volume of the periodical “Old German Forests” by the Brothers Grimm appears.
- 1814 The brothers Carl and Ludwig Emil join the battle against Napoleon. Wilhelm is appointed secretary at the electoral library on February 4th. On April 28th the siblings of the Grimms move into a new flat at “Wilhelmshöher Platz” in Kassel; Jacob travels to Vienna in September and works there as a diplomat at the Viennese Congress. At the end of the year, the second volume of the Brother’s Grimm “Children’s and Household Tales” appears.
- 1815 The Germanic Confederation is founded in Vienna with the Confederation Act from June 9th. Aunt Zimmer dies in Kassel in April 15th at the age of 67. Wilhelm and Ludwig Emil travel to Frankfurt, Heidelberg and to the Rhine River where they meet up with Savigny, Brentano, Görres and Goethe. Jacob returns to Kassel at the beginning of July and once again works for the Hessian and Prussian governments in Paris in order to return the assets robbed by Napoleon. The editions of the “Poor Heinrich” and “Edda” appear.
- 1816 On January 16th Jacob becomes deputy librarian at the Electoral library in Kassel. Wilhelm travels to Wiepersdorf and Weimar, Jacob makes a journey to Göttingen. The first part of the “German Legends” is published
- 1819 The University of Marburg gives The Brothers Grimm an honourable doctorate. Wilhelm travels to the Bökendorf estate owned by the Haxthausen-family, and to the Schwertzell-family in Willinghausen. The second part of Jacob’s “German Grammar” and the second edition of the “Children’s and Household Tales” are published.
- 1821 After the death of the first Hessian Elector on September 21st, his son Wilhelm II comes to power. The Brothers Grimm support the Hessian Electress Auguste, who is separated from her husband and lives in Castle Schoenfeld, and resides in Palace Bellevue. Wilhelm travels to Frankfurt; his treatise “On German Runes” is published.
- 1822 Sister Lotte marries the lawyer and future electoral Hessian secretary of state Ludwig Hassenpflug. The Brothers Grimm move into a flat at “Fünffensterstraße 7” in Kassel.
- 1823 Jacob travels to Fulda, Steinau, Büdingen and Gießen; Wilhelm to Marburg and Willinghausen. In London, the first English edition of the Grimm’s fairy tales is published. It is translated by Edgar Taylor and illustrated by George Cruikshank.
- 1824 The Brothers Grimm move to “Bellevue 9” in Kassel.
- 1825 Wilhelm marries Dorothea Wild, a pharmacist’s daughter whom he knows from his youth, on May 15th. The “Small Edition” of the “Children’s and Household Tales”, illustrated by Ludwig Emil Grimm, is published.
- 1826 Wilhelm’s first son Jacob and Lotte’s first daughter Agnes die after their birth. Wilhelm and Jacob travel to Hannoversch Muenden with Savigny, Wilhelm to Marburg and Willinghausen. The Brothers Grimm move to “Bellevue 7”.
- 1828 Wilhelm’s son Herman is born in Kassel on January 6th. Jacob and Ludwig Emil travel to Wolfhagen, Arolsen and Zierenberg, Wilhelm to Marburg. Ludwig Emil takes part in the “Dürer Festival” in Nürnberg. Jacob’s “German Law Antiquities ”.
- 1829 After the death of Ludwig Völkel, director of the library in Kassel, on January 31st the Brothers Grimm do not obtain the promotion they deserve and consequently accept a position offered at the University of Göttingen; on December 26th they move to Göttingen. Wilhelm’s major work “The German Legend” is published.
- 1830 The French July Revolution causes revolts all over Europe. On January 2nd Jacob and Wilhelm are inaugurated in their positions in Göttingen, Jacob as a librarian and professor and Wilhelm as a librarian. On January 19th, they move into the “Brothers Grimm House” in the “Allee 6”. Wilhelm’s son Rudolf is born in Göttingen on March 31st.
- 1831 In Hesse, the state constitution comes into effect on January 5th. Wilhelm is appointed associate professor on February 19th. Jacob travels to southern Germany and visits Joseph von Laßberg in Switzerland, Wilhelm travels via Kassel and Fulda to a course of treatment in Wiesbaden. (also in 1832, 1833 and 1834)
- 1832 Ludwig Hassenpflug, the Grimm’s brother in law, is appointed secretary of state for internal affairs and law. Ludwig Emil becomes a professor at the Academy of Art in Kassel and marries Marie, a daughter of the painter Wilhelm Böttner in Kassel. Wilhelm’s daughter Auguste is born in Göttingen on August 21st.
- 1833 Sister Lotte dies on June 15th at the age of 40. Ludwig Emil’s daughter Friederike is born on July 23rd. In the Kingdom of Hanover, the liberal state constitution, which was developed by Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann, comes into effect on September 26th.
- 1834 Jacob travels to Brussels and Gent. Jacob’ ”Reinhart Fuchs” and Wilhelm’s “Freidank” are published
- 1835 Wilhelm becomes associate professor. Jacob’s „German Mythology“ is published.
- 1837 After the death of the English and Hanoverian King Wilhelm IV on June 20th , his brother Ernst August of Cumberland ascends the throne and repeals the constitution of 1833. On November 19th seven Göttingen professors protest against this act, Jacob and Wilhelm are among them. On December 4th, the case comes before the University courts and the “Göttingen Seven” are dismissed from state service. On December 12th Dahlmann, Jacob Grimm and Gervenius are expelled from Hanover. Jacob returns to Kassel on December 17th and lives with his brother Ludwig Emil at “Bellvue 7”.
- 1838 From January 12th to 16th Jacob writes his justification “On His Dismissal”, which is printed in Basel in April. In spring he travels to Thuringia, Franconia and Saxony. Wilhelm returns to Kassel with his family in October. Salomon Hirzel, a publisher in Leipzig, makes a contract with the Brothers Grimm to work on the “German Dictionary”.
- 1840 Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Prussian King since June 7th, calls the Brothers Grimm to the Royal Academy for a meeting in November. In December, Jacob travels to Berlin.
- 1841 On March 14th the Brothers Grimm leave Kassel and travel to Berlin via Witzenhausen, Heiligenstadt, Halle and Potsdam. There, they move into a flat at “Leneéstraße 8”on March 24th. On March 15th the Prussian King welcomes them. Wilhelm journeys to Steinau and to the Rhine.
- 1842 Jacob obtains the Prussian medal “Pour le mérite”. Ludwig Emil’s first wife Marie dies on August 15th.
- 1843 Ludwig Emil visits the Brothers Grimm with his daughter Friederike in Berlin. Jacob travels to Italy.
- 1844 Jacob is honoured with the Prussian Red Eagle Medal on October 14th. At a birthday celebration for Wilhelm on February 24th , an incident occurs on account of the presence of the writer Hofmann von Fallersleben, who was dismissed by the Prussian King. Jacob travels to Denmark and Sweden.
- 1845 Brother Ferdinand dies in Wolfenbüttel on January 6th. Ludwig Emil marries his second wife Friederike Ernst, a daughter of Kassel’s superintendent Chr. Friedrich Wilhelm, on April 14th.
- 1846 The Brothers Grimm move to “Dorotheenstaße 47”. In Frankfurt the first assembly of scholars of German language and literature takes place with Jacob as chairman. Wilhelm talks about the “German Dictionary”. Jacob travels to Tübingen.
- 1847 Elector Wilhelm II dies on November 20th, his son Friedrich Wilhelm I. becomes the autocrat. The second assembly of Scholars of German language and literature takes place in Lübeck with Jacob as chairman. Jacob travels to Prague and Vienna.
- 1848 Revolutionary movements seize all parts of Europe, in Vienna there are major revolts on March 13th, in Berlin on the 18th. Jacob travels to the pre-parliamentarian assembly to Frankfurt am Main from March 29th to April 2nd; On May 19th he is elected representative by the Rhine-Prussian constituency and participates in the meetings of the First German National Assembly in the St. Paul’s Church in Frankfurt. Jacob’s “ History of the German Language” und “Wilhelm’s “Kassel commentaries” are published. Jacob quits his teaching profession.
- 1849 King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia turns down the offer to become emperor. Jacob takes part in congress of the “Party of little Germany” in Gotha.
- 1850 Jacob travels to Vienna, Wilhelm to Silesia.
- 1852 Brother Carl dies in Kassel on May 25th. Wilhelm quits his teaching profession. The first delivery of the “German Dictionary” is published.
- 1853 Jacob travels to the South of France and Italy; Wilhelm travels to the Rhine. The Bavarian “Maximilian medal” is awarded to Jacob.
- 1854 The first part of the “German Dictionary” is published.
- 1855 Deposition of Ludwig Hassenpflug in Kassel
- 1855 Jacob travels to Celle
- 1857 The last (seventh) of Wilhelm Grimm’s edited edition of the „Children’s and Household Hales is published.
- 1859 Wilhelm’s son Herman marries Gisela von Arnim on October 25th. Wilhelm dies at the age of 73 in Berlin of complications from a carbuncle in Berlin on December 16th and is laid to rest at Matthäi-Cemetery.
- 1860 Jacob gives his famous academy speeches, “On the Old Age” and “On Wilhelm Grimm”.
- 1863 Ludwig Emil dies at the age of 73 in Kassel on April 4th. Jacob travels to the Harz; He dies at the age of 78 after two following strokes on December 20th and is laid to rest next to his brother.
- (c) http://www.grimms.de/en/content/timeline Retrieved 19 April 2021
E-texts of Nine Folktales
Myth, Legend, Folk/Fairytale
LEGENDS [SAGAS]: 1. The principle characters ar human heroes/heroines 2. Always a basis in some aspect of real human history; usually the past. 3. Tend to be drawn from nobility or aristocracy (though humble origins may figure into the narrative.) 4. Usually full of hyperbole. 5. Legends are an attempt to create an historical basis for someone or something, an attempt to create a HISTORY for a group.
FOLK/FAIRYTALES: 1. Ordinary people or animals (Beast Fables) 2. Ordinary people interacting with nobility, monsters, or God/supernatural powers. 3. Entertain/teach; often justify customary patterns of behavior. 4. a. Aesop; Greek 6th Century BC b. Arabian Nights c. Grimm Brothers d. The literary tale: Anderson, Alice in Wonderland, the Oz books. 5. Characters often overcome great obstacles. 6. Usually full of types: The abused child; the evil step mother; the witch, the Cinderella type, etc. NOTE: It is important to realize that the lines between these three categories are not solid; some myths have fairytale elements (i.e. the animals in The Odyssey that are transformed humans), some legends have mythic elements (most medieval legends have a strong emphasis on divine intervention), and some fairytales have both mythic and legendary aspects to them (a film like Field of Dreams is a classic example).