ROSWELL & BEYOND...
Controversy: What Really Happened at Roswell?
Roswell & Conspiracy
Project Blue Book
Wright-Patterson and Hangar 18
J. Allen Hynek
Hynek's Encounter Scale
- Nocturnal Lights: Lights in the night sky
- Daylight Discs: UFOs seen in the daytime, generally having discoidal or oval shapes
- Radar-Visual: UFO reports that have radar confirmation—these supposedly try to offer harder evidence that the objects are real, although radar propagation can be occasionally discredited due to atmospheric propagation anomalies
- Close Encounters of the First Kind: Visual sightings of an unidentified flying object, seemingly less than 500 feet (150 m) away, that show an appreciable angular extension and considerable detail.
- Close Encounters of the Second Kind: A UFO event in which a physical effect is alleged; this can be interference in the functioning of a vehicle or electronic device, animals reacting, a physiological effect such as paralysis or heat and discomfort in the witness, or some physical trace like impressions in the ground, scorched or otherwise affected vegetation, or a chemical trace
- Close Encounters of the Third Kind: UFO encounters in which an animated entity is present—these include humanoids, robots, and humans who seem to be occupants or pilots of a UFO.
- EXTENSIONS OF HYNEK'S SCALE
- Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind: A UFO event in which a human is abducted by a UFO or its occupants. This type was not included in Hynek's original close encounters scale.
- Close Encounters of the Fifth Kind: A UFO event in which there is direct communication between aliens and humans.
OVERVIEW: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_51OVERVIEW: https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/research/a24152/area-51-history/BBC OVERVIEW (2019): https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-49568127CONSPIRACY THEORIES: https://www.britannica.com/video/212132/Area-51-military-air-force-base-alien-videoCONSPIRACY THEORIES: https://www.businessinsider.com/area-51-american-conspiracy-theories-aliens-history-animation-video-2017-7
2021 UFO Report
2022 Congressional Hearing
2023 Congressional Hearing
General Web Resources
- HISTORY CHANNEL OVERVIEW: https://www.history.com/ufo-sightings-location-map
- CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF SIGHTINGS (partial): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_reported_UFO_sightings
- FAMOUS UFO SIGHTINGS: https://www.history.com/news/historys-most-infamous-ufo-sightings
- FIVE FAMOUS UFO SIGHTINGS: https://www.travelchannel.com/shows/expedition-unknown-hunt-for-extra-terrestrials/articles/5-famous-ufo-sightings-across-the-world
- CREDIBLE MODERN UFO SIGHTINGS: https://www.newsweek.com/ufo-sightings-encounters-credibility-video-1371313
- BRITANNICA ENTRY (Overview): https://www.britannica.com/topic/unidentified-flying-object
- CRASH BEFORE ROSWELL (Cape Girardeau 1941): https://www.kait8.com/video/2021/05/26/story-alleged-ufo-crash-near-cape-girardeau/?outputType=amp
- BBC (with focus on the film NOPE and the 75th anniversary of Roswell): https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20220714-the-ufo-sightings-that-swept-the-us
- ROSWELL: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/videos/the-mysterious-roswell-ufo-incident-of-1947/
- ROSWELL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2022/07/08/roswell-flying-saucer-ufo/
- CIA STUDIES HISTORY: https://sgp.fas.org/library/ciaufo.html
- GOVERNMENT STUDIES: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2021/06/04/ufo-report-explained-government/
- WHY SO MANY CRASHES?: https://amp.theguardian.com/science/2023/jun/17/aliens-ufo-uaps-us-defence-government-coverup-david-grusch
- WHY SO MANY CRASHES? (skeptical debunking): https://wraltechwire.com/2023/06/23/ufos-us-if-advanced-aliens-are-really-visiting-earth-why-do-they-keep-crashing/
- CALL FOR MORE STUDIES: https://www.snexplores.org/article/ufo-science-research-uap-congress-pentagon-nasa
- HISTORY OF UFO SIGHTINGS (BuzzFeed): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kd9387qiP40
- TOP 5 SHOCKING UFO SIGHTINGS IN THE USA (History Channel): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR4mDKwagAA
- TOP 5 UFO SIGHTINGS (The Proof Is Out There, History Channel): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwZZd2u9Pm4
- ROSWELL OVERVIEW (Australian Broadcasting Corporation): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGsUUvOXxtY
- ROSWELL OVERVIEW (Smithsonian Air and Space Museum): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foJWblpzEjA
- TOP 20 UFO SIGHTINGS (WatchMojo.com): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq2OIBSaVkE
- ROSWELL OVERVIEW: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tim1rqGsUxc
A Dozen Noteworthy UFO-UAP Sightings
No. 2 EZEKIEL Of the many accounts in the Bible of strange happenings and otherworldly occurrences, the story of Ezekiel is one of the more fascinating, especially when looked at through the lens of modern technology. When biblical texts are interpreted through this perspective in general, an interesting picture emerges of the possibility that our ancient ancestors were actually visited by an advanced race, rather than gods. This idea, known as the ancient astronaut theory, sees Ezekiel’s “vision” of the Merkabah, or wheeled chariot, as more likely to be a spaceship or space shuttle used by an advanced species to reach out to humans.Erich von Däniken is one of the biggest proponents of this theory, providing a very compelling argument for an alternative interpretation of the Book of Ezekiel. --click-- So compelling in fact that his theory even reversed the entire thesis of a NASA scientist’s book aimed at disproving his claim.
No. 3 NUREMBERG UAP A broadsheet news article printed in April 1561 describes a mass sighting of celestial phenomena. The broadsheet, illustrated with a woodcut engraving and text by Hans Glaser, measures 26.2 centimetres (10.3 in) by 38.0 centimetres (15.0 in). The document is archived in the prints and drawings collection at the Zentralbibliothek Zürich in Zürich, Switzerland. According to the broadsheet, around dawn on 14 April 1561, "many men and women" of Nuremberg saw what the broadsheet describes as an aerial battle "out of the sun", followed by the appearance of a large black triangular object and exhausted combattant spheres falling to earth in clouds of smoke. The broadsheet claims that witnesses observed hundreds of spheres, cylinders, and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead. The woodcut illustration depicts objects of various shapes, including crosses (with or without spheres on the arms), small spheres, two large crescents, a black spear, and cylindrical objects from which several small spheres emerged and darted around the sky at dawn.
No. 4 UTSURO-BUNE Utsuro-bune was an unknown object that allegedly washed ashore in 1803 in Hitachi province on the eastern coast of Japan. When defining Utsuro-bune, the bune part means "boat" while Utsuro means empty, or hollow. Accounts of the tale appear in three texts: Toen shōsetsu (1825), Hyōryū kishū (1835) and Ume-no-chiri (1844). According to legend, an attractive young woman aged 18-20 years old, arrived on a local beach aboard the "hollow ship" on February 22, 1803. Fishermen brought her inland to investigate further, but the woman was unable to communicate in Japanese. She was very different from anyone else there. The fishermen then returned her and her vessel to the sea, where it drifted away. Historians, ethnologists and physicists such as Kazuo Tanaka and Yanagita Kunio have evaluated the "legend of the hollow boat" as part of a long-standing tradition within Japanese folklore. Alternatively, certain ufologists have claimed that the story represents evidence for a close encounter with extraterrestrial life.
No. 5 AURORA UAP During the last two decades of the 19th century, there were reports from around the world of mysterious airships. In the United States, numerous newspaper accounts of airship sightings were published in late 1896 and early 1897. The Aurora, Texas, UFO incident reportedly occurred on April 17, 1897. According to a contemporary newspaper account, a UFO crashed on a farm near Aurora, Texas, resulting in the death of the extraterrestrial pilot. Supposedly, the alien was buried in the Aurora Cemetery. An article written by S.E. Haydon and published in the Dallas Morning News on April 19, 1897, described the crash two days earlier of "the airship which has been sailing through the country." The craft suddenly appeared over Aurora at about 6 a.m. local time on April 17, 1897. It was "much nearer the earth than ever before", and "evidently some of the machinery was out of order". The ship subsequently "collided with the tower of Judge J. S. Proctor's windmill and went to pieces with a terrific explosion, scattering debris over several acres". The pilot, presumed to be the sole occupant, was killed. Examination of his remains indicated that "he was not an inhabitant of this world." T.J. Weems, from nearby Fort Worth, whom Haydon described as "the United States signal service officer at this place and an authority on astronomy," opined that the pilot was "a native of the planet Mars." A funeral was planned for the alien on April 20. Papers found on his body after the crash contained writings "in some unknown hieroglyphics," which, according to Haydon, appeared to record the pilot's travels. Haydon noted that the ship was made of "an unknown metal." A Texas Historical Commission marker outside the Aurora Cemetery, alleged burial site of the UFO pilot, which briefly mentions the incident, characterizing it as a "legend".
No. 6 WORLD WAR II: FOO FIGHTERS The term foo fighter was used by Allied aircraft pilots during World War II to describe various UFOs or mysterious aerial phenomena seen in the skies over both the European and Pacific theaters of operations. The nonsense word "foo" emerged in popular culture during the early 1930s, first being used by cartoonist Bill Holman, who peppered his Smokey Stover fireman cartoon strips with "foo" signs and puns. The term "foo" was borrowed from Smokey Stover by a radar operator in the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, Donald J. Meiers, who, according to most 415th members, gave the foo fighters their name. According to Ringwald, because of the lack of a better name, it stuck. And this was originally what the men of the 415th started calling these incidents: "f***in' foo fighters". In December 1944, a press correspondent from the Associated Press in Paris, Bob Wilson, was sent to the 415th at their base outside of Dijon, France, to investigate this story. It was at this time that the term was cleaned up to just "foo fighters". The squadron commander, Capt. Harold Augsperger, also decided to sanitize the term to "foo fighters" in the historical data of the squadron. Although Royal Air Force personnel had reported seeing lights following their aircraft from as early as March 1942, with similar sightings involving RAF bomber crews over the Balkans starting in April 1944, American sightings were first recorded by crews from the 422nd Night-Fighter Squadron stationed in Occupied Belgium during the first week of October 1944. At the time, these were erroneously believed to be Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket-powered interceptors which did not operate at night. However, the bulk of the sightings started occurring in the last week of November 1944, when pilots flying over Western Europe by night reported seeing fast-moving round glowing objects following their aircraft. The objects were variously described as fiery, and glowing red, white, or orange. Some pilots described them as resembling Christmas-tree lights and reported that they seemed to toy with the aircraft, making wild turns before simply vanishing. Pilots and aircrew reported that the objects flew together in formation with their aircraft and behaved as if they were under intelligent control, but never displayed hostile behavior. However, they could not be outmaneuvered or shot down. The phenomenon was so widespread that the lights earned a name – in the European Theater of Operations they were often called "Kraut fireballs", but for the most part called "foo fighters". The military took the sightings seriously, suspecting that the mysterious sightings might be secret German weapons, but further investigation revealed that German and Japanese pilots had reported similar sightings.
No. 7 THE BATTLE OF LOS ANGELES The Battle of Los Angeles, also known as the Great Los Angeles Air Raid, is the name given by contemporary sources to a rumored attack on the continental United States by Imperial Japan and the subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late 24 February to early 25 February 1942, over Los Angeles, California. The incident occurred less than three months after the U.S. entered World War II in response to the Imperial Japanese Navy's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and one day after the bombardment of Ellwood near Santa Barbara on 23 February. Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but speaking at a press conference shortly afterward, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox called the purported attack a "false alarm". Newspapers of the time published a number of reports and speculations of a cover-up to conceal an actual invasion by enemy airplanes. When documenting the incident in 1949, the United States Coast Artillery Association identified a meteorological balloon sent aloft at 1:00 am as having "started all the shooting" and concluded that "once the firing started, imagination created all kinds of targets in the sky and everyone joined in". In 1983, the U.S. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of "war nerves" triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries. No. 8 MOUNT RAINIER UAP The Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting occurred on June 24, 1947, when private pilot Kenneth Arnold claimed that he saw a string of nine, shiny unidentified flying objects flying past Mount Rainier at speeds that Arnold estimated at a minimum of 1,200 miles an hour (1,932 km/hr). This was the first post-World War II sighting in the United States that garnered nationwide news coverage and is credited with being the first of the modern era of UFO sightings, including numerous reported sightings over the next two to three weeks. Arnold's description of the objects also led to the press quickly coining the terms flying saucer and flying disc as popular descriptive terms for UFOs. No. 9 WASHINGTON DC UAP It was just before midnight on July 19, 1952, at the Washington National Airport (now the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport) when an air traffic controller spotted seven unidentified flying objects in the sky southwest of the nation’s capital. The controller, Edward Nugent, asked colleagues to double-check what he was seeing. They confirmed the equipment was working properly, and what they could see was not following a typical flight pattern. Not long after, the controllers could see other bright objects hovering over the White House (then occupied by President Harry S. Truman) and the Capital Building. Fighter jets were scrambled from nearby New Castle Air Force Base in Delaware in the pre-dawn hours of July 20, 1952, but the UFOs disappeared from the radar and from sight when the fighter jets arrived over the city. When a lack of fuel forced the jets to return to Delaware, the radar detected UFOs again, leading the air traffic controllers to believe the mysterious crafts could intercept and understand radio traffic. By daybreak, the objects were no longer visible on radar or by eye. The following weekend, the strange phenomena happened again. Again, fighter jets raced from Delaware to Washington, and air traffic controllers could see numerous unidentifiable objects across the radar. That night, one of the fighter pilots saw the strange lights and attempted to chase them, but his craft was no match for the speed of the UFOs, and ended his pursuit. After two consecutive weekends of UFO activity over the city, President Truman asked to be briefed by a representative from Project Blue Book, the Air Force’s new program for documenting and studying reported UFO sightings. Specifically, Project Blue Book wanted to determine if UFOs posed a national security threat — 1952 was in the midst of the Red Scare, and the Cold War was simmering on the horizon — and to analyze data and reports about UFO in a scientific manner. Ultimately, the Air Force claimed the event was weather-related. But there was a problem. The leader of Project Blue Book, Capt. Edward Ruppelt, later publicly denounced the Air Force’s explanation, saying that temperature inversions were already well-documented radar anomalies, and what happened in Washington, D.C., was not related to an inversion. So was it a true cover-up? Did the Air Force know more than they said and officials simply wanted to quell public panic?
No. 10 BETTY AND BARNEY HILL Barney and Betty Hill were an American couple who claimed they were abducted by extraterrestrials in a rural portion of the state of New Hampshire from September 19 to 20, 1961. It was the first widely publicized report of an alien abduction in the United States. Most of Betty Hill's notes, tapes, and other items have been placed in the permanent collection at the University of New Hampshire, her alma mater. In July 2011, the New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources marked the site of the alleged craft's first approach with a historical marker. No. 11 RENDELSHAM The Rendlesham Forest incident was a series of reported sightings of unexplained lights near Rendlesham Forest in Suffolk, England in late December 1980 which became linked with claims of UFO landings. The events occurred just outside RAF Woodbridge, which was used at the time by the United States Air Force (USAF). USAF personnel, including deputy base commander Lieutenant Colonel Charles I. Halt, claimed to see things they described as a UFO sighting. The occurrence is the most famous of claimed UFO events to have happened in the United Kingdom, and is among the best-known reported UFO events worldwide. It has been compared to the Roswell UFO incident in the United States and is sometimes referred to as "Britain's Roswell". No. 12 USS NIMITZ "TIC TAC" UAP On November 14, 2004, fighter pilot Commander David Fravor of the USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Group claims to have investigated radar indications of a possible target off the coast of southern California. Fravor said the operator had told him that the USS Princeton (CG-59), part of the strike group, had been tracking unusual aircraft for two weeks prior to the incident. The aircraft would appear at 80,000 feet (24,000 m) before descending rapidly toward the sea, and stopping at 20,000 feet (6,100 m) and hovering. Fravor reported that he saw an object, white and oval, hovering above an ocean disturbance. He estimated that the object was about 40 feet (12 m) long. Fravor and another pilot, Alex Dietrich, said in an interview that a total of four people (two pilots and two weapons systems officers in the back seats of the two airplanes) witnessed the object for about 5 minutes. Fravor says that as he spiraled down to get closer to the object, the object ascended, mirroring the trajectory of his airplane, until the object disappeared. A second wave of fighters, including pilot Lieutenant Commander Chad Underwood, took off from Nimitz to investigate. Unlike Fravor, Underwood's fighter was equipped with an advanced infrared camera (FLIR). Underwood recorded the FLIR video, and coined the description "Tic Tac" to describe the infrared image, but did not himself see any unusual object.During 2014–2015, fighter pilots associated with the USS Theodore Roosevelt carrier strike group were operating off the East Coast of the United States when they recorded the GIMBAL and GOFAST videos while reporting instrument detections of unknown aerial objects which the pilots were unable to identify. The Pentagon released the UAP videos, which are selected visual recordings of cockpit instrumentation displays from United States Navy fighter jets based aboard aircraft carriers USS Nimitz and USS Theodore Roosevelt in 2004, 2014 and 2015, with additional footage taken by other Navy personnel in 2019. The four grainy, monochromic videos, widely characterized as officially documenting UAPs, have received extensive coverage in the media since 2017. The Pentagon later addressed and officially released the first three videos in 2020, and confirmed the provenance of the leaked 2019 videos in two statements made in 2021. Publicity surrounding the videos has prompted a number of explanations, including drones or unidentified terrestrial aircraft, anomalous or artefactual instrument readings, physical observational phenomena (e.g., parallax), human observational and interpretive error, and, as is typical in the context of such incidents, extraordinary speculations of alien spacecraft.