...a World of Dinosaurs
New Dinosaur Families...stay tuned
- SCIENTIFIC AMERICA: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/ornithoscelida-rises-a-new-family-tree-for-dinosaurs/
- SCIENCE DAILY: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170322143202.htm
- EVOLUTION TODAY: https://evolutionnews.org/2017/03/radical-shakeup-of-dinosaur-phylogeny-requires-convergent-evolution/
- THE ROYAL SOCIETY: OPEN SCIENCE: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/10/170833
- NORTHWEST PALEONTOLOGICAL SOCIETY: http://nwpaleo.org/2017/04/02/major-reclassification-of-dinosaurs-proposed/
- A CASE FOR ORNITHOSCELIDA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithoscelida
ORNITHISCHIANS Plant-eating Ornithischians, as well as some prosauropods had varying teeth but many had horny beaks and many leaf-like cheek teeth for nipping and chewing through tough foliage. Ankylosaurs (such as Euoplocephalus, Sauropelta and Ankylosaurus) were unable to chew their food so they may have had large fermentation chambers where they were able to digest the tough plant fibers. Ankylosaurs had teeth shaped like a hand with the fingers together. Ornithomimids (like Ansermimus, Gallimimus, Ornithomimus and Struthiomimus) did not have teeth, but they had beaks with which they ate plants and insects and small animals. Stegosaurids (Kentrosaurus and Stegosaurus as well as others) had leaf-shaped teeth that were built for slicing at weeds that grew close to the ground. Hadrosaurs (Edmontosaurus, Maiasaura, Lambeosaurus, Parasaurolophus and many more) were duck-billed dinosaurs and had around 960 self-sharpening cheek teeth; the most teeth of all of the dinosaurs. Iguanodontids (Iguanodon, Probactrosaurus, and Ouranosaurus among others) had teeth that look similiar to today’s iguanas. They were rounded outward, notched on top and curved, indicating that perhaps today’s iguanas originated as iguanodontids. Heterodontosaurus was a small dinosaur that had three different types of teeth in addition to a beak. It had sharp upper teeth which it used with its beak to bite and cheek teeth for grinding its food and two pairs of long canine-type teeth that fit into sockets when Heterodontosaurus closed its mouth. Ceratopsians (Triceratops, Monoclonius and Styracosaurus belonged to this group) had toothless beaks they used to gather food and lots of flat cheek teeth they used to grind and chew tough plant material.
SEE ALSO: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088398/
- Sauropods: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sauropoda
- Apatosaurus: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/a/apatosaurus.html
- Apatosaurus: https://www.livescience.com/25093-apatosaurus.html
- Brachiosaurus: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/b/brachiosaurus.html
- Argentinosaurus: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/a/argentinosaurus.html
- TITANOSAURIA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanosaur
- TITANOSAURIA: https://www.thoughtco.com/titanosaurs-the-last-of-the-sauropods-1093762
- (Video) PATAGOTITAN MAYORUM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn1BW9tvq-I
- (AMNH Videos) PATAGOTITAN MAYORUM: https://www.amnh.org/explore/amnh.tv/(category)/131058
- Sauropoda, whose members are known as sauropods, is a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs. Sauropods had very long necks, long tails, small heads (relative to the rest of their body), and four thick, pillar-like legs. They are notable for the enormous sizes attained by some species, and the group includes the largest animals to have ever lived on land. Well-known genera include Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus.
- The oldest known unequivocal sauropod dinosaurs are known from the Early Jurassic. Isanosaurus and Antetonitrus were originally described as Triassic sauropods, but their age, and in the case of Antetonitrus also its sauropod status, were subsequently questioned. Sauropod-like sauropodomorph tracks from the Fleming Fjord Formation (Greenland) might, however, indicate the occurrence of the group in the Late Triassic. By the Late Jurassic (150 million years ago), sauropods had become widespread (especially the diplodocids and brachiosaurids). By the Late Cretaceous, one group of sauropods, the titanosaurs, had replaced all others and had a near-global distribution. However, as with all other non-avian dinosaurs alive at the time, the titanosaurs died out in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Fossilised remains of sauropods have been found on every continent, including Antarctica. The name Sauropoda was coined by O.C. Marsh in 1878, and is derived from Greek, meaning "lizard foot". Sauropods are one of the most recognizable groups of dinosaurs, and have become a fixture in popular culture due to their impressive size. Complete sauropod fossil finds are rare. Many species, especially the largest, are known only from isolated and disarticulated bones. Many near-complete specimens lack heads, tail tips and limbs. (c) Wikipedia
- THEROPOD OVERVIEW: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theropoda
- OVERVIEW FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MUSEUM OF PALEONOTOLGY: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/saurischia/theropoda.html
- BIRDS ARE THEROPODS: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-dinosaurs-shrank-and-became-birds/
- VIDEO OVERVIEW OF SAURISCHIAN DINOSAURS (Benjamin Burger): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yse_NNCdzMw
- COELOPHYSIS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/c/coelophysis.html
- POSSIBLE PRESERVED FEATHERS: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/12/feathered-dinosaur-tail-amber-theropod-myanmar-burma-cretaceous/ (Based on the structure of the tail, researchers believe it belongs to a juvenile coelurosaur part of a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes everything from tyrannosaurs to modern birds)
- ALLOSAURUS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allosaurus
- ALLOSAURUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/a/allosaurus.html
- TYRANNOSUARUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/t/tyrannosaurus.html
- TYRANNOSAURUS: https://www.livescience.com/23868-tyrannosaurus-rex-facts.html
- TYRANNOSAURUS AND FEATHERS: https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/dinosaurs-ancient-fossils-new-discoveries/liaoning-diorama/a-feathered-tyrant/
Dromaeosaurids and Oviraptosaurids
BUSTING SOME VELOCIRAPTOR MYTHS: https://www.thoughtco.com/things-to-know-velociraptor-1093806DEINONYCHUS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeinonychusDEINONYCHUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/d/deinonychus.htmlOVIRAPTOROSAURIDS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/articles/oviraptorosaurs.htmlOVIRAPTOROSAURIDS: http://www.dinosaur-world.com/feathered_dinosaurs/oviraptoridae.htmOVIRAPTOR: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oviraptor
FURTHER INFORMATION: http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/melanosomes/Kulindadromeus.html
Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/t-rex-skin-was-not-covered-feathers-study-says-180963603/
- ORNITHISCHIAN OVERVIEW: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia
- OVERVIEW FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MUSEUM OF PALEONTOLOGY: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/ornithischia/ornithischia.html
- VIDEO COMPARISON OF SAURISCHIANS AND ORNITHISCHIANS (Benjamin Burger): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYsFVDj-65A
- VIDEO OVERVIEW ABOUT ORNITHISCHIANS (Benjamin Burger): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RObirXm6DDU
- What makes an ornithischian dinosaur? All terrestrial animals and even marine animals derived from terrestrial stocks have hip girdles, or pelvises, and all hip girdles are composed of three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. All ornithischians are united by a pubis pointing backward, running parallel with the ischium. The name "Ornithischia" means "bird-hipped," and birds also have pelvises in which the pubis points backwards. However, birds are more closely related to the Saurischia, or "lizard-hipped" dinosaurs, than to the ornithischian dinosaurs featured on this page. There were many kinds of ornithischian dinosaurs, dating back to the early Jurassic. The Ornithopoda included the hadrosaurs ("duck-billed dinosaurs"), the iguanodontids, the heterodontosaurs, the hypsilophodontids, and various other dinosaurs. The Ceratopsia included the horned dinosaurs, the Ankylosauria and Stegosauria (now usually grouped together in the Thyreophora) included various types of armored dinosaurs, and the Pachycephalosauria, the extremely thick-skulled pachycephalosaurs.
- •Thyreophorans represent the armored dinosaurs, and are a clade of (predominantly) quadrupedal ornithischians.
- •There are characterized by the presence of osteoderms (armor plates) in their skin. Different clades of thyreophorans express these osteoderms in different patterns.
- •Beyond a few basal taxa, thyreophorans are divided into the plated Stegosauria and the tank-like Ankylosauria.
- •Armor in thyreophorans seem to have functions beyond simple defense: they served as display structures and (in the case of the stegosaurs and the club-tailed ankylosaurine ankylosaurs) as active weapons.
- THYREOPHORA: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/ornithischia/thyreophora.html
- THYREOPHORA: https://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G104/lectures/104thyreo.html
- ANKYLOSAURUS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankylosaurus
- ANKYLOSAURUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/a/ankylosaurus.html
- STEGOSAURUS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stegosaurus
- STEGOSAURUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/stegosaurus.html
- Marginocephalia is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs that is characterized by a bony shelf or margin at the back of the skull. These fringes were likely used for display. There are two clades included in Marginocephalia: the thick-skulled Pachycephalosauria and the horned Ceratopsia. All members of Marginocephalia were herbivores. They basally used gastroliths to aid in digestion of tough plant matter until they convergently evolved tooth batteries in Neoceratopsia (or "new Ceratopsia") and Pachycephalosauria. Marginocephalia first evolved in the Jurassic Period and became more common in the Cretaceous. They are basally small facultative quadrupeds while derived members of the group are large obligate quadrupeds. Primitive marginocephalians are found in Asia, but the group migrated upwards into North America.
- MARGINOCEPHALIA: https://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G104/lectures/104margino.html
- MARINOCEPHALIA: http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Dinosauria/Marginocephalia.html
- PACHYCEPHALOSAURIA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachycephalosauria
- PACHYCEPHALOSUARUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/p/pachycephalosaurus.html
- TOP TEN CERATOPSIANS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/top-tens/top-ten-ceratopsians.html
- STYRACOSAURUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/styracosaurus.html
- PROTOCERATOPS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/p/protoceratops.html
- PSITTACOSAURUS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/p/psittacosaurus.html
- PSITTACOSAURUS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psittacosaurus
- TRICERATOPS: http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/t/triceratops.html