...T. rex and its Family
Meet the Tyrant Lizards
Geography: Location, Location, Location
ANCIENT PLATE TECTONICS VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsCYZ-k-0ucPLATE TECTONICS: https://www.earthhistory.org.uk/key-concepts/plate-tectonics-1PLATE TECTONICS: https://geology.com/plate-tectonics.shtml
Meet the Family
Tyrannosauroidea (Super Family)
- Range 167-164 mya/Russia
- Dating from the Middle Jurassic Period, Kileskus is a contender for one of the earliest tyrannosaurs. The partial skull remains have revealed the presence of a crest that rose up from the snout. Beyond this the only thing that can be said about Kileskus is that it appears to belong in a basal position of the Proceratosauridae, the group thought to belong alongside the earliest tyrannosaurs.
- NOTE: The Proceratosauridae are a branch of the Tyrannosauroidea Super Family. They lived from approximately 165 Mya (Jurassic) to 120 Mya (Cretaceous). As you will read and see in the following links, there are differences of opinion regarding exactly where to place some species:
- Range 168-166 mya/England
- Proceratosaurus is a genus of small-sized (~3 metres (9.8 ft) long) carnivorous theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of England. It was originally thought to be an ancestor of Ceratosaurus, due to the similar small crest on its snout. Now, however, it is considered a coelurosaur, specifically one of the earliest known members of Tyrannosauroidea, the clade of basal relatives of the tyrannosaurs. The type specimen is held in the London Museum of Natural History and was recovered in 1910 at Minchinhampton while excavating for a reservoir. Minchinhampton an ancient market town on a hilltop, 4 miles (6.4 km) south south-east of Stroud, Gloucestershire, England, in the Cotswolds.
- Range 163-157 mya/China
- Named from the Chinese words guan, meaning 'crown', and long, meaning 'dragon,’ in reference to its flashy head-crest, Guanlong is the most elaborate of any known theropod dinosaur. The species name comes from the Chinese word wucai meaning 'five colours' and refers to the multi-hued rocks at Wucaiwan, the badlands where the fossils were found. Guanlong wucaii is one of the most primitive tyrannosaurs known. It hunted its prey 95 million years before T. rex lived. According to the Australian Museum, the name is pronounced GWON-long woo-kay-eye.
- Range 125-112 mya/China
- Yutyrannus (meaning "feathered tyrant") is a genus of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs which contains a single known species, Yutyrannus huali. This species lived during the early Cretaceous period in what is now northeastern China. Three fossils of Yutyrannus huali—all found in the rock beds of Liaoning Province—are currently the largest-known dinosaur specimens that preserve direct evidence of feathers (as of 2019).
- Range 125-120 mya/China
- Sinotyrannus (meaning "Chinese tyrant") is a genus of large basal proceratosaurid dinosaur, a relative of tyrannosaurids which flourished in North America and Asia during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods. Sinotyrannus is known from a single incomplete fossil specimen including a partial skull, from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Though it is not much younger than primitive tyrannosauroids such as Dilong, it is similar in size to later forms such as Tyrannosaurus. It was much larger than contemporary tyrannosauroids; reaching a total estimated length of 9–10 m (30–33 ft), it is the largest known theropod from the Jiufotang Formation.
- Range 156-151 mya/Utah (USA)
- Dating back around one-hundred and fifty-two million years ago, Stokesosaurus is one of the earliest representatives of the tyrannosaur lineage, being only slightly later than Guanlong. At up to four meters long, Stokesosaurus resembled the juvenile forms of later tyrannosaurids, and was a fleet-footed predator relying upon speed to catch prey. Stokesosaurus possibly remained at these smaller sizes because other larger predators such as Allosaurus were dominant at the time.
- Range 130-125 mya/Isle of Wight
- Eotyrannus lengi (meaning "dawn tyrant") is a species of tyrannosauroid theropod dinosaur hailing from the Early Cretaceous Wessex Formation beds, included in Wealden Group, located in the southwest coast of the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom. The remains (MIWG1997.550), consisting of assorted skull, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton elements, from a juvenile or subadult, found in a plant debris clay bed, were described by Hutt et al. in early 2001. The etymology of the generic name refers to the animals classification as an early tyrannosaur or "tyrant lizard", while the specific name honors the discoverer of the fossil.
- Range 120-90 mya/China
- Xiongguanlong ("Grand Pass dragon") is a genus of tyrannosauroid dinosaur that lived in the Early Cretaceous of what is now China. The type species is X. baimoensis (White Ghost Castle), described online in 2009 by a group of researchers from China and the United States, and formally published in January 2010. The genus name refers to the city of Jiayuguan, a city in northwestern China. The specific name is derived from bai mo, "white ghost", after the "white ghost castle", a rock formation near the fossil site. The fossils include a skull, vertebrae, a right ilium and the right femur. The rocks it was found in are from the Aptian to Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 100 million years ago.
- Range 71-67 mya/New Jersey (USA)
- Dryptosaurus is a genus of tyrannosauroid that lived approximately 67 million years ago during the latter part of the Cretaceous period in what is now New Jersey. Dryptosaurus was a large, bipedal, ground-dwelling carnivore, that could grow up to 7.5 m (25 ft) long. Although largely unknown now outside of academic circles, a famous painting of the genus by Charles R. Knight made it one of the more widely known dinosaurs of its time, in spite of its poor fossil record. First described by Edward Drinker Cope in 1866 and later renamed by Othniel C. Marsh in 1877, Dryptosaurus is among the first theropod dinosaurs known to science.