The Real Thanksgiving
- HISTORY (HISTORY CHANNEL): http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving/history-of-thanksgiving
- TRADITIONS (NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC KIDS): https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/explore/history/thanksgiving-traditions/
- HISTORY (An extensive and well-documented article): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanksgiving_(United_States)
- WHY FOURTH THURSDAY? (NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO): http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2012/11/21/165655925/how-did-thanksgiving-end-up-on-thursday
- PILGRIM HALL MUSEUM (THE FIRST THANKSGIVING): http://www.pilgrimhallmuseum.org/pdf/TG_What_Happened_in_1621.pdf
- FIRST MENU (SMITHSONIAN): https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/what-was-on-the-menu-at-the-first-thanksgiving-511554/
- FIRST MENU (HISTORY CHANNEL): http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving/first-thanksgiving-meal
The Two Primary Texts:
- EDWARD WINSLOW "Mourt's Relation": http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/mourt1.html
- THE LOST WILLIAM BRADFORD MANUSCRIPT "Of Plimouth Plantation": http://mastatelibrary.blogspot.com/2017/05/the-lost-bradford-manuscript.html
- MYTHS (READERS DIGEST): https://www.rd.com/culture/thanksgiving-myths/
- GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY (COLUMBIAN COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES): WHAT WE’VE GOT RIGHT; WHAT WE’VE GOT WRONG: http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/15002
- MYTHS (NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC): https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/11/121120-thanksgiving-2012-dinner-recipes-pilgrims-day-parade-history-facts/
- WASHINGTON POST: https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/5-myths-about-thanksgiving/2011/11/22/gIQA3UffmN_blog.html?utm_term=.53cee5cc35e2
- HISTORY CHANNEL: http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving/mayflower-myths
Indigenous Peoples of the New England Region
- NATIVE AMERICAN RESPONSE: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/rev-dr-randy-s-woodley/the-thanksgiving-myth_b_2175247.html
- WAMPANOAG NATION: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wampanoag
- MASHPEE WAMPANOAG TRIBE TIMELINE: http://www.mashpeewampanoagtribe-nsn.gov/timeline
- PLIMOTH PLANTATION WEBSITE (WHO ARE THE WAMPANOAG): https://www.plimoth.org/learn/just-kids/homework-help/who-are-wampanoag
- UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS (WAMPANOAG): https://www.umass.edu/nativetrails/nations/Wampanoag/MashpeeWampanoag.htm
- INDIANS.ORG (WAMPANOAG): http://indians.org/articles/wampanoag-indians.html
- KING PHILIPS WAR: http://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/king-philips-war
- SQUANTO (BIOGRAPHY CHANNEL): https://www.biography.com/people/squanto-9491327
- MASSASSOIT (MAYFLOWER HISTORY WEBSITE): http://mayflowerhistory.com/massasoit/
Pilgrimas (not Puritans)
- REVIEW OF RIC BURNS’ THE PILGRIMS: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/act-four/wp/2015/11/24/the-pilgrims-challenges-the-myths-of-the-first-thanksgiving/?utm_term=.682c07cfab75
- PILGRIM VS. PURITAN (UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA): http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/puritan/purhist.html
- HISTORY CHANNEL (HOW THE STATES GOT THEIR SHAPE): http://www.history.com/shows/how-the-states-got-their-shapes/videos/puritans-vs-pilgrims
- NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE: http://www.newsweek.com/whats-difference-between-pilgrim-and-puritan-397974
- THE HISTORIC PRESENT: https://thehistoricpresent.com/2008/05/12/pilgrims-v-puritans-who-landed-in-plymouth/
Four Women: Strength and Fortitude
- ONLY FOUR WOMEN LEFT BY “THANKSGIVING”: http://mayflowerhistory.com/women/
- MASSACHUSETTS STATE HISTORY (FIRST THANKSGIVING): http://historyofmassachusetts.org/the-first-thanksgiving/
- MAYFLOWER PASSENGER LIST: http://mayflowerhistory.com/mayflower-passenger-list/
- GIRLS ON THE MAYFLOWER: http://mayflowerhistory.com/girls/
- WOMEN OF EARLY PLYMOUTH: http://mayflowerhistory.com/women/
- 15,000 BCE --1500 CE: Native Americans celebrated harvest and gratitude festivals for thousands of years.
- 1500’s: French and Spanish celebrated days of giving thanks (religious days of prayer) and harvest festivals as early as the 1500’s.
- 1610: Commonwealth of Virginia: Jamestown first celebrates a day of “giving thanks” in 1610.
- 1600’s: Thanksgiving became a regular festival in Massachusetts Bay Colony as early as 1630--and definitely after 1680. Associated with Harvest. A day of prayer.
- 1777: First National Proclamation of Thanksgiving (to “adore the superintending Providence of Almighty God”) was written by Samuel Adams and then adopted by the Continental Congress.
- Late 1700’s: There were various Thanksgiving Proclamations during the first thirty years of our nationhood.
- 1789: On October 3, George Washington, made the first National Decree for a day of Thanksgiving. “Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be.”
- 1770’s--early 1800’s: Several Thanksgiving proclamations: George Washington, 1795; John Adams, 1798 and 1799; James Madison, twice in 1815 (after the close of the War of 1812)
- By 1858, proclamations appointing a day of thanksgiving were issued by governors of 25 states and 2 territories.
- 1863: Abraham Lincoln--prompted by editorials written by Sarah Josepha Hale, proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day (capital letters) to be celebrated on the final Thursday in November 1863. It has been celebrated annually in the US ever since.
- 1939: CONTOVERSY! FDR broke with tradition. November had five Thursdays in 1939, so Roosevelt declared Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday (rather than the final Thursday) to give merchants still suffering the effects of the Depression an extra week for Christmas sales. Republicans decried the change, calling it an affront to the memory of Lincoln. 23 States went along with FDR, 23 did not, and Texas and Colorado couldn’t decide, so they took BOTH Thursdays as federal holidays.
- 1941: The issue was resolved by Congress, and on December 26--probably as a morale booster after Pearl Harbor--FDR signed a law that made Thanksgiving a federal holiday celebrated on the 4th Thursday of November.
- Missouri Thanksgiving Day Parade (St. Louis, Missouri)
- America's Hometown Thanksgiving Parade (Plymouth, Massachusetts)
- Carrousel Parade (Charlotte, North Carolina)
- Celebrate the Season Parade (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
- Sun Bowl Parade (El Paso, Texas)
- Holiday Parade (Houston, Texas)
- Thanksgiving Parade (Chicago, Illinois)
- Santa Claus Parade (Peoria, Illinois), the nation's oldest, dating to 1887 and held the day after Thanksgiving
- Parada de los Cerros Thanksgiving Day Parade (Fountain Hills, Arizona)
- Parade Spectacular (Stamford, Connecticut) – held the Sunday before Thanksgiving so it doesn't directly compete with the Macy's parade 30 miles (48 km) away.
© Adapted from several websites including Wikipedia, the History Channel, and the Smithsonian Channel